Resources

IFC has extensively researched and analyzed inclusive business models and practices. The “Next 4 Billion” publication provided for the first time a quantitative assessment and characterization of base of the pyramid markets, while the Business Linkages series explored the lessons, opportunities and challenges of more inclusive value chains. Most recently, “Accelerating Inclusive Business Opportunities,” identifies seven inclusive business models that expand access to goods, services, and livelihood opportunities for the world’s poorest people while generating strong financial returns.


Accelerating Inclusive Business Opportunities: Business Models that Make a Difference (.pdf)
IFC, 2011IFC’s newest inclusive business report, “Accelerating Inclusive Business Opportunities,” identifies seven inclusive business models that expand access to goods, services, and livelihood opportunities for the world’s poorest people while generating strong financial returns. These models are helping companies turn underserved populations into dynamic consumer markets and diverse new sources of supply. In the process, companies are developing product, service, and business model innovations with the potential to tip the scales of competitive advantage in more established markets as well. This report summarizes and analyzes patterns in the solutions companies with inclusive business models are using to succeed.

Inclusive Business Models: Guide to the Inclusive Business Models in IFC’s Portfolio (.pdf)
IFC, 2011This new report includes a set of 31 case studies on IFC’s portfolio companies with inclusive business models. Together these companies are profitably providing goods, services, and livelihood opportunities to more than 100 million people at the base of the economic pyramid. IFC has invested in all of the models profiled in the report, meaning that financial, environmental, and social due diligence was done; that the financial projections showed a sufficiently high commercial return; and that all projects have been monitored on a quarterly basis for financial, environmental, and social results.

Inclusive Business Solutions: Expanding Opportunity and Access at the Base of the Pyramid (.pdf)
IFC, 2010This report highlights the successful approaches IFC clients have taken to overcome the challenges faced while starting and scaling their inclusive business models. Topics include: 1) building distribution networks that reach the BOP; 2) value chain financing for inclusive business models; and 3) changing mindsets to unlock demand. The report also includes 21 interviews with the company leaders behind these successful models.

Scaling up Inclusive Business: Advancing the Knowledge and Action Agenda (.pdf)
IFC, Harvard Kennedy School, 2010This report is intended to frame key issue areas that need to be addressed to move the field of inclusive business forward – toward greater scale and effectiveness – building on the considerable momentum that already exists.
The 14 cases analyzed here were selected based on availability of information for a first look into the inclusive business models in IFC’s portfolio, with the purpose of setting the stage for more in-depth research going forward.

Developing Inclusive Business Models: A Review of Coca-Cola’s Manual Distribution Centers in Ethiopia and Tanzania (.pdf)
IFC, Harvard Kennedy School, 2009 A growing number of large corporations are proactively engaging in inclusive business approaches with the aim of achieving core business benefits – such as greater competitiveness, increased market share and improved risk management – while also contributing to the achievement of international development goals. The following report provides a review of one such approach: Coca-Cola’s Manual Distribution Center model, with a focus on implementation in Ethiopia and Tanzania where it accounts for over 80 percent of the company’s sales.

Business Linkages: Enabling Access to Markets at the Base of the Pyramid (.pdf)
IFC, International Business Leaders Forum, March 2009

The fourth event in the Business Linkages Series, a joint initiative between International Business Leaders Forum, IFC and the Corporate Social Responsibility Initiative at Harvard’s Kennedy School, this three-day workshop held in March 2009 in Jaipur focused on enabling access to markets at the base of the pyramid. The report summarizes the findings of the meeting looking specifically at the challenges in forming business linkages as well as solutions for successful linkages.

Supporting Entrepreneurship at the Base of the Pyramid through Business Linkages (.pdf)
IFC, June 2008 This report summarizes the findings of the third Business Linkages Series event, held in Rio de Janeiro in 2008. The dialogue brought together public and private business linkage practitioners to discuss supply, distribution, and sales models that foster entrepreneurship and enterprise development among those currently living in conditions of poverty.
Business Linkages: Lessons, Opportunities and Challenges (.pdf)
IFC, International Business Leaders Forum, Harvard Kennedy School, 2007

This publication is an example of IFC’s ongoing commitment to sharing knowledge and good practices, and to partnering with key global players to address challenges and identify opportunities for linkages in developing countries.


The Next 4 Billion: Market Size and Business Size at the Base of the Pyramid (.pdf)
IFC, World Resources Institute, 2007Drawing on income data from 110 countries and standardized expenditure data from 36 countries across the globe, The publication offers an important first look at the market opportunity represented by four billion individuals who make up the base of the pyramid. The analysis for the first time provides a quantitative assessment and characterization of base of the pyramid markets, at several levels of analysis.